Medical biochemistry is a crucial field within the medical sciences that deals with the
It is a science that examines all chemical and biological processes in the human body and makes examinations to evaluate these mechanisms.Medical biochemistry studies the molecules and chemical reactions responsible for the proper functioning of our cells, tissues, and organs.
Medical biochemistry is also prevalent in everyday medical practice. From routine blood tests to diagnosing and treating complex medical conditions, biochemistry plays a vital role in modern medicine. In a hospital setting, the medical biochemistry laboratory is one of the busiest departments, as the analysis of various body fluids, such as blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid, is a vital tool for diagnosing and monitoring many diseases.
In summary, Medical biochemistry is a complex and fascinating field that plays a crucial role in medicine and other related fields. It offers a deeper understanding of the human body and its functions, which is essential for diagnosing and treating diseases and the development of new drugs and therapies. With the ever-evolving field of biochemistry, discoveries are being made all the time, and the future of medicine is brighter than ever before
Diagnostic Methods Applied in the Biochemistry Laboratory
It helps to diagnose diseases by examining the fluids and tissues obtained from the body in the biochemistry laboratory. The biochemical tests that are frequently carried out in hospitals can be listed as follows:
- Complete blood count (CBC): It is done to determine the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and other cells in the blood. Thanks to this test, a detailed examination of the blood can be obtained.
- Urine tests:It is done to determine the amount, density and pH of certain substances in the urine. In this way, the presence of various diseases can be diagnosed.
- Stool test: Whether there is blood in the stool, digestive system evaluations are done to examine and evaluate any viral or bacterial pathogens.
- Kidney function tests: It is done to evaluate the urea, creatinine and the general working functions of the kidneys, which are excreted by the kidneys from the body. In addition, the evaluation of minerals such as sodium, potassium and calcium can be done.
- Liver function tests: It is done to evaluate the functions of the liver and to determine the levels of substances such as bilirubin, ALT and ALP, albumin.
- Serological test: It is done to evaluate the body's immune response, to identify some rheumatological diseases and to determine the presence of diseases such as hepatitis and HIV.
- Hormone test: It is done to examine and evaluate hormones such as TSH, estrogen, testosterone, insulin and pregnancy hormones in the body.
- Examination of body fluids: With this test, the enzymes and biological products in the body's fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid, lung pleural fluid, joint fluid or gastric fluid are evaluated.
- Regulatory impact analysis (RIA): RIA analysis is a comprehensive test to examine chemical and molecular functions in the body. This test using radioactive agents can help diagnose many diseases.
- Tumor markers: Evaluation of enzymes, antigens and hormones in the blood for cancer screening. With this test, cancer can be detected early.
- Electrolyte test: It is done to evaluate the electrolyte or acid-base balance in the body. In this way, the functions of organs and tissues can also be evaluated.
- Cardiac enzyme test: It is done to examine the enzymes in the heart to diagnose cardiovascular diseases.
What Is the Role of Medical Biochemistry in Medical Diagnostics?
The branch of medical biochemistry is essential for understanding the underlying causes of diseases and developing new diagnostic techniques and treatments. Many of the most significant medical breakthroughs of the last century, such as the discovery of DNA and the development of antibiotics, were made possible through advances in medical biochemistry.
Some of the most common diagnoses facilitated by medical biochemistry include:
Medical biochemistry is used to diagnose and monitor various metabolic disorders, such as diabetes, thyroid dysfunction, and lipid disorders. Blood tests are used to measure the levels of glucose, thyroid hormones, and lipids in the body, which can provide valuable information about the functioning of the endocrine system.
Liver and Kidney Disorders
The liver and kidneys are crucial organs involved in many metabolic processes. Medical biochemistry is used to diagnose and monitor liver and kidney disorders by measuring the levels of enzymes and other molecules in the blood. For example, elevated levels of liver enzymes, such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), can indicate liver damage. In contrast, increased levels of creatinine in the blood can indicate kidney dysfunction.
This condition is characterized by a reduced count or number of red blood cells or a low hemoglobin level. Medical biochemistry is used to diagnose anemia by measuring the levels of iron, vitamin B12, and folate in the blood. Blood tests can also be used to measure the levels of other molecules, such as erythropoietin, that are involved in the production of red blood cells.
Medical biochemistry is used to diagnose and monitor cancer by measuring the levels of specific molecules in the blood. For instance, the presence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the blood can be used to identify prostate cancer, and the presence of CA-125 in the blood can be used to diagnose some kinds of ovarian cancer.
Medical biochemistry is also used to diagnose and monitor nutritional deficiencies by measuring the blood's levels of vitamins and minerals. For example, low vitamin D levels can indicate a deficiency, while low iron levels can indicate anemia.
The field is constantly evolving, and new techniques and technologies are being developed all the time, which will continue to improve the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions in the future.
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