The internal medicine department typically focuses on identifying, diagnosing, treating, and ultimately curing health conditions faced by adults. The internal medicine doctor is a specialist who blends science with clinical expertise to identify and treat the most complex diseases. Internal doctors are also referred to as internists or internal medicine specialists.
Their expertise lies in diagnosing conditions, handling chronic cases, and remediating internal diseases by leveraging their in-depth understanding of the human body and internal organs. Their unique ability to tailor treatment specifically for each patient allows them to follow a distinct yet effective approach toward providing personalized cures.
Types of Internal Medicine Specialists
The different types of specialists include:
General Internal Medicine Specialists
General internal medicine doctors undergo a strenuous medical program, achieving various educational degrees. They typically focus on catering to a broad range of diseases, from basic ones like- fever, cold, cough, and even long-term, complex, and chronic ailments.
Their specialty is not limited to a specific field or subfield. They can also treat several disorders, individually or in collaboration with medics from other internal and non-internal areas.
Internal Medicine Sub-specialists
The internal medicine doctors who train well-beyond beyond their standard education program and attain a fellowship are sub-specialists. These are internists or internal medicine doctors who know general internal medicine and ailments. Their fellowship programs help them specialize in specific fields. They are regarded as experts and capable of resolving highly-complex conditions within their fields and are often referred to based on their domains.
There are several subspecialties in internal medicine:
Hematology is the branch of medicine that studies the physiology, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of blood-related disorders. Hematologists are specialized medical doctors who are trained in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases of the blood and blood-forming tissues, including the bone marrow and lymphatic system.
Immunology and Allergy Diseases
Immunology is the study of the immune system, which is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect the body from infectious agents, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. The immune system also helps to defend the body against cancerous cells and other harmful substances. Immunologists study how the immune system functions, how it is regulated, and how it can be harnessed to prevent and treat diseases.
Work and Occupational Diseases
Occupational diseases are health conditions that result from exposure to hazards in the workplace. These hazards can include physical, chemical, biological, and ergonomic factors that can cause harm to workers. Occupational diseases can take many forms, such as respiratory disorders, skin diseases, hearing loss, and musculoskeletal disorders.
Nephrology is a branch of medicine that focuses on the study of the structure, function, and diseases of the kidneys. The kidneys are vital organs that filter waste products from the blood, regulate the body's fluid balance, and maintain the body's electrolyte and acid-base balance. Nephrologists are medical specialists who are trained to diagnose and treat a wide range of kidney-related conditions, including chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, kidney stones, hypertension, and electrolyte disorders.
Intensive care, also known as critical care, is a specialized medical care provided to patients who have life-threatening illnesses or injuries that require constant monitoring and support. Patients who require intensive care often have severe, complex medical conditions that require close attention and intervention by a team of healthcare professionals.
Gastroenterology is a medical specialty that focuses on the study of the digestive system and its disorders. The digestive system includes the organs that are involved in the digestion and absorption of food, such as the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Gastrologists, also known as gastroenterologists, are those internal medicine practitioners who specifically cater to providing digestive medicines.
Endocrinology is the branch of medicine that focuses on the study of the endocrine system and its disorders. The endocrine system is a complex network of glands and organs that produce and secrete hormones, which regulate a wide range of bodily functions, including metabolism, growth and development, sexual function, and mood.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that focuses on the study and treatment of cancer. Cancer is a complex group of diseases that can affect any part of the body and involves the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells.
Oncologists are medical specialists who are trained to diagnose and treat various types of cancer, including solid tumors and blood cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma. They work closely with other specialists, such as pathologists, radiologists, and surgeons, to provide comprehensive care to cancer patients.
Geriatrics is a medical specialty that deals with the care of older adults. Geriatricians are medical specialists who are trained to address the unique health needs of older adults, which can be complex and multi-faceted. They work to promote healthy aging and to manage and prevent the complications and chronic conditions that can arise with age.
Rheumatology is a medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases affecting the joints, muscles and bones. These conditions may involve inflammation, pain, stiffness, and loss of function. Rheumatologists are medical specialists who are trained to diagnose and treat a wide range of rheumatic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, gout, lupus, and vasculitis.
What are the Internal Medicine Department Diagnostic Methods?
Diagnosing the symptoms in individuals is one of the most important steps of treatment. A correct diagnosis brings with it the correct treatment. There are multiple methods for diagnosing diseases in the internal medicine department:
This includes a thorough examination of the patient's body, including the skin, eyes, ears, nose, throat, neck, chest, abdomen, and extremities.
Blood, urine, feces, etc. examined in the laboratory. result values may be a harbinger of diseases in the body. Laboratory results are helpful in understanding many diseases.
Thanks to imaging tests, the patient's body and organs can be examined in detail and the diagnosis of many diseases can be made. Computed tomography, x-ray, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound are the most common imaging methods.
Bone Density Test (DEXA)
It is the process of measuring the density of minerals in the bone structure. The patient remains motionless on a table for about 10 minutes and is done using X-rays.
Pulmonary Function Test
It is applied to control the volume of the lungs and how the lungs work. Helps in diagnosing lung diseases
It provides a detailed examination of the heart's structure, valves, chambers and blood vessels. This process using sound waves helps diagnose abnormalities and diseases in the vessel.
It is a detailed examination of breast tissue. It can be used to diagnose abnormal conditions in or around the breast tissue
It is the examination of the digestive system organs by inserting a tube with a camera and light at the end. Biopsy samples can also be taken by endoscopy if necessary.
It allows the examination of the rectum and large intestine by inserting a tube with a camera and light at the end through the anus. A biopsy sample can be taken with colonoscopy when necessary.
What Ailments Do Internal Medicines Cure?
The medical department that provides internal medicines typically aims to cure every possible ailment, irrespective of its nature. General internal medicine specialists are aware of bodily functions, and their unique idea of the organs, and the ailments affecting them, can make a major difference. Internal medicine doctors cater to every disease and have numerous sub-specialties.
Some major chronic diseases cured include diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, and asthma.
Such as infections, injuries, and similar acute respiratory conditions, require an urgent and immediate approach.
Internal medicine specialists are also trained to deal with digestive system disorders like IBS, acid reflux, and Crohn's disease. These internal medicine sub-specialists are referred to as Gastroenterologists.
Endocrine Disorders :
These internal medicine specialists are referred to as Endocrinologists. They cater to treating the conditions of the human endocrine system. The body's endocrine system is responsible for producing hormones. The internists are particularly trained to diagnose and manage conditions such as diabetes, thyroid disorders, and adrenal gland disorders.
Thyroid Gland Diseases
The thyroid gland is responsible for regulating many functions in the body. A lack or excess of thyroid in the body can lead to serious diseases. Especially not losing weight, weight loss and fatigue are the symptoms of thyroid disorder.
Hypertension, which is expressed as high blood pressure, can cause damage to the vessels and problems such as bleeding. Hypertension is followed up and treated in the internal medicine unit.
Cholesterol and Triglyceride
Cholesterol and triglycerides are fats found in the blood. In some cases, lipids in the blood may rise above the normal value. Failure to control these values can lead to more serious heart and vascular problems.
Diseases affecting the respiratory system can cause problems such as coughing, phlegm and snoring by disrupting the functions of the lungs. The diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases is done in the internal medicine department, but serious lung diseases are treated in the chest diseases department.
Diseases in the kidneys, cyst formations, acute or chronic failures can lead to serious health problems. Diagnosis, follow-up and treatment of these defects in the kidneys are done by the internal medicine department.
Diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as soft tissue rheumatism, calcification and fibromyalgia are carried out by the internal medicine department. However, when deemed necessary, these patients can be referred to the rheumatology department.
With age, people develop various medical conditions requiring sensitive and highly-focused care. The internists are trained to diagnose and manage these conditions, including mobility problems, cognitive decline, and incontinence.
Diabetes is when the amount of sugar in the blood is above normal values due to insufficient secretion of the hormone insulin. It is seen as Type 1 and Type 2.
These internal medicine subspecialists treat those disorders that affect the blood and blood-forming tissues. The internists in this sub-field are trained to diagnose and manage conditions such as anemia, leukemia, and lymphoma.
It is also required that if you experience any health condition, whether it is an infection, disease, or something else, you must rush to meet an internal specialist. If you have an idea about the disease, you can meet a sub-specialist or a general internal medicine expert.
What are the Treatment Methods of the Internal Medicine Department
Since internal diseases affect some major organs with vital functions, diagnosis and treatment should be rapid. With the developing technology, the diagnosis and treatment of diseases are easier. Treatment methods applied in the internal medicine department can be listed as follows:
Medication is often used to treat internal diseases. The doctor prescribes the appropriate medication for the patient and the patient should use their medication regularly until the medication is finished.
This may include dietary changes, increased physical activity, stress management techniques, or other lifestyle modifications to improve overall health and manage symptoms.
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
This method can be used to treat diseases that occur in the biliary tract or pancreas. The procedure is performed by inserting a tube with a camera and light at the end through the mouth.
This method can be used to treat diseases that occur in the organs of the digestive system. It is performed by inserting a tube with a light and a camera at the end through the mouth. It is both a diagnosis and a treatment method.
It can be used in the treatment of diseases that develop in the large intestine, rectum or around the rectum. It occurs by inserting a tube with a light at the end through the anus. It is both a diagnosis and a treatment method.
Internal Medicines Administered by Specialists and Subspecialists
While diseases are life-threatening, these treatments have minimal complications, and receiving proper and prompt care can easily remediate complications that may arise. USHAŞ is a government-affiliated organization under the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Türkiye and the HealthTürkiye has been established to facilitate medical tourism. With the help of such organizations and the high quality of its facilities and medical teams, Türkiye is ready to host you.
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