Immunology and Allergology Diseases
Allergy and immunology is the field of medicine that examines, evaluates, diagnoses and treats allergic reactions. It also includes clinical applications that prepare the treatment plan of diseases related to immune system failure. Allergy and immunology specialists are responsible for conducting the necessary examinations and tests to detect the trigger substance in individuals with allergic conditions.
Overall, the pediatric allergy immunology department, and internal medicine allergy department are vital fields of medicine that continue to expand our understanding of the human body and its response to different triggers. Read on as we aim to delve deeper into the complex world of immunology and allergology, exploring current research and treatments and the latest breakthroughs and innovations in these areas.
With Which Departments Does the Allergy and Immunology Department Work?
Allergy immunology is the branch of medicine that deals with allergic reactions and the immune system, including diagnosing, treating, and managing allergies and related disorders. Researchers and specialists may focus on several branches within the fields of immunology and allergology. Allergy and immunology are divided into two main sections as adults and children.
The branches of pediatric allergy and immunology are branches of medicine that focus specifically on children's immune systems and allergic reactions.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Pediatric immunology deals with diagnosing and treating immune system disorders in children. On the other hand, pediatric allergology focuses on diagnosing and treating any pediatric allergy in children. Pediatric allergy treatment plans may typically involve desensitization therapy, medications, and environmental control.
Pediatric immunology and allergy specialists receive 6 years of medical training, followed by 4 years of specialization training on pediatrics, and 3 years of training on pediatric allergy and immunology diseases.
Adult Allergy and Immunology
Adult allergy and immunology department diagnoses and treats immune system and allergy diseases in patients over the age of 18. Adult allergy and immunology specialists, specialize in internal medicine or pulmonology for 4 to 5 years after 6 years of medical training. Then they specialize in adult allergy and immunology for 3 years and specialize in this field. In general, adult allergy diseases examine and evaluate allergens that affect adults and the diseases they cause.
Allergy and Immunology Department Diagnostic Methods
In the development of allergy, it is important to quickly identify what causes the reaction in the person and to apply treatment. Diagnostic methods used in the department of allergy and immunology can be listed as follows:
- Prick test: With this method, it is tested whether the individual reacts to more than 40 allergens. Small incisions are made on the inside of the forearm with the help of a sterile needle and a different allergen is dripped into each incision. The allergen is detected according to the reaction of the skin.
- Intradermal test: With this method, allergen substances are injected into the skin with the help of an injector. The skin response is evaluated.
- Sweat test: In this test, after stimulating the sweat glands in the patient's forearm, the amount of chlorine in the sweat is measured.
- Pulmonary functions test: A spirometry device is used in this test to evaluate the airways and lungs. Maximum lung capacity is determined by spirometry.
- Drug challenge test: It is used to identify drug allergies in people. Because this test is risky, it should be done by experts.
- Food challenge test: It is applied to detect food allergies in people. Suspicious foods are removed from the diet for 2 to 4 weeks. Afterwards, the reactions of the patient's body are measured by giving the suspicious food little by little in the company of a specialist.
- Exercise test: It is applied for patients who experience respiratory distress after exertion. The patient is asked to run on the treadmill for 4 to 6 minutes, then a breathing test is performed.
- Searching for specific IgE in blood (RAST test): Immunoglobulin E (IgE) type antibodies play a major role in allergy diagnosis as they mediate allergic reactions.
What Diseases Does Allergy and Immunology Look at?
Depending on the allergen, one or more systems in the body may be affected. Allergic reactions are more observed in the outermost protective membranes of the body. Diseases treated in the department of allergy and immunology can be listed as follows:
- Asthma: Asthma is a disease that obstructs the airways, making it difficult to breathe. The smooth muscles around the airway contract, increasing the production of sticky mucus. As a result, the airway narrows.
- Allergic rhinitis: It occurs as a result of inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose. It is characterized by itching in the nose, sneezing, nasal congestion and runny nose.
- Allergic conjunctivitis (Eye allergy): It is the inflammation of the layer covering the surface of the eye. An eye allergy due to airborne allergens can affect both eyes. Redness, watering, burning, itching in the eyes are typical features.
- Food allergy: It occurs as a result of the immune system's response to certain foods. These reactions may vary depending on the allergen. Reactions can be seen in areas such as the ear, nose, throat and digestive system.
- Angioedema :It can occur when the C1 inhibitor in the blood is reduced or its function is impaired. This genetic disease can cause swelling in the tissues of the face, throat and digestive system.
- Eczema: This disease, which develops due to genetic and environmental conditions, may develop due to allergies and stress. May cause dry, red and intensely itchy lesions on the skin.
- Systemic vasculitis: It is the development of a problem due to anemia in the areas fed by that blood vessel as a result of inflammation in the blood vessels.
- Organ transplant consultations: After an organ transplant, the body's immune system may develop immunity to the transplanted organ. As a result, various problems may arise.
- Autoinflammatory diseases:They are diseases caused by the body's immune system seeing itself as a foreign organism and attacking its own cells. Although there is no harmful organism in the body, the immune system is active. Fever, rash, fatigue, abdominal pain and joint swelling are typical symptoms.
- Immunodeficiency syndromes: It is the deficiency of the elements that make up the immune system or a malfunction in its functions.
- Urticaria: This skin allergies diseases also known as hives, is the occurrence of redness, itching and swelling on the skin due to various allergens.
- Drug allergy: Some drugs can have a negative effect after being given to the individual. Especially penicillin, cephalosporin and aspirin are drugs that can cause drug allergy.
- Insect allergy: It is the body's reaction to the poison of various insects. Especially honey bee and hornet insects can cause severe allergic reactions.
- Anaphylaxis: Anaphylaxis is the strongest allergic reaction and develops when the whole body reacts to an allergen. May be life-threatening by obstructing breathing. Swelling of the lips and shortness of breath are typical symptoms.
What Are the Common Symptoms of Allergic Diseases?
Allergic allergy is when the body's immune system reacts to a foreign substance, such as pollen or pet dander, causing symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, and itchy eyes. Allergic reactions and related diseases can cause a wide range of allergy symptoms. A patient's particular symptoms will depend on the sort of allergy or related illness they have. Here is an overview of some common symptoms of allergies and related diseases:
- Sneezing, runny nose, and nasal congestion: These are common symptoms of hay fever (allergic rhinitis), which is an allergic reaction to substances such as pollen, mold, and pet dander.
- Wheezing, coughing, and difficulty breathing: These are common symptoms of asthma, which is a chronic lung disease that occurs when the airways become inflamed and narrowed in response to certain triggers, such as allergens.
- Itching, redness, and dry, scaly skin: These are common symptoms of atopic dermatitis (eczema), which is a chronic, itchy skin condition that is often linked to other allergies, such as hay fever and asthma.
- Hives (urticaria), itching, swelling of the face and throat, vomiting, and difficulty breathing: These are common symptoms of food allergies, which occur when the body reacts to certain foods, such as peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, eggs, and cow's milk.
- Itching allergy, hives, swollen tongue or throat, difficulty breathing, skin allergy, and in severe cases, anaphylaxis: These are common symptoms of insect sting allergies, which occur when the body reacts to the venom from bees, wasps, yellow jackets, hornets, fire ants, or other stinging insects. They can often cause allergy reaction in skin.
- Hives, rash, allergy symptoms on skin like itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing: These are common symptoms of drug allergies, which occur when the body reacts to certain drugs, such as penicillin or other antibiotics.
- Redness, itching, blistering, and cracking of the skin: These are common symptoms of Allergic contact dermatitis skin allergy, which occurs when the skin comes into direct contact with certain allergens such as chemicals, metals, and other irritants.
- Raised, pale red bumps or welts on the skin that can appear and disappear quickly, often accompanied by itching caused by the release of histamine in response to an allergen, are common symptoms of urticaria (hives).
- Swelling, especially on the face, lips, and tongue: these are common symptoms of angioedema, which is a condition similar to hives, but it affects deeper layers of the skin and the tissues around it.
Typically, some people may have more severe symptoms than others, and symptoms may also vary depending on the individual, the allergen, and the severity of the allergic reaction. In some cases, severe allergic reactions can cause allergic shock, also called anaphylaxis. It will cause a patient to require immediate medical attention, as it is a life-threatening issue.
There are various treatments for allergies. The options include allergen immunotherapy, medications such as antihistamines and corticosteroids, and lifestyle changes to avoid allergens, which will help you with allergies skin treatment, and various other immune system and allergic ailments. With the proper care, many people can effectively manage their allergies and immune disorders and improve their quality of life.
Allergy and Immunology Department Treatment Methods
Allergy diseases affect people negatively and reduce their quality of life. Therefore, prompt and effective treatment is required. Treatment methods applied in the department of allergy and immunology can be listed as follows:
- Pharmacological treatment: The doctor prescribes a suitable medicine for the patient according to the allergen. The drugs can be used for a long time or when an allergic reaction is observed, according to the doctor's instructions.
- Immunotherapy: In this method, it is aimed to create immunity against the allergen by giving the allergen causing allergy to the patient at certain intervals.
- Allergen protection: The most important approach in allergy treatments is to stay away from allergens. You can minimize allergic reactions by staying away from areas where allergens are present, foods and other factors.
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