Gynecology and Obstetrics
Gynecology and Obstetrics are two branches of medicine that are deeply intertwined and essential for the health and well-being of women. Gynecology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of conditions and diseases specific to the female reproductive system, while The Obstetrics department focuses on pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum care. Other women's health issues such as menopause, gynecological cancers, hormone problems, contraception (birth control) and infertility are also the specialties of the obstetrics and gynecology branch.Together, these fields play a vital role in ensuring women's overall health and vitality at every stage of their lives.
Gynecology and obstetrics is a specialized branch of medicine which requires a 5-year long training in gynecology and obstetrics, following a 6-year long medical education. Typically called Gynecologists work both as a surgeon and clinician for patients with wide range of illnesses and ages.
It is common sense to understand that the majority of women in the world will experience at least one gynecological problem in their lifetime. From menstrual cramps to menopause and everything in between, gynecological issues can significantly impact a woman's quality of life. Additionally, pregnancy and childbirth are major events in a woman's life and require specialized care to ensure the mother's and baby's health and safety. Obstetricians are highly trained physicians who provide this care, working to handle any complication pregnancy and delivery may bring on.
In addition to their medical significance, obstetrics & gynecology also have a significant social impact. The ability to control fertility and make informed decisions about reproductive health is a fundamental aspect of women's rights and empowerment. Additionally, the health and well-being of women during pregnancy and childbirth have a ripple effect on the entire family and community. Overall, the department of obstetrics and gynecology is essential, and its ever-evolving scope plays a crucial role in the health and well-being of women and families.
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics - Common Diseases
Obstetrics and Gynecology diseases significantly impact a person's life quality and hinder regular functioning.
Some common diseases and conditions handled by gynecology and obstetrics include:
- Pregnancy: Obstetricians are responsible for the care of women during pregnancy, including monitoring the mother and fetus, identifying and managing any potential complications, and providing advice and support to ensure a healthy pregnancy and delivery.
- Ectopic Pregnancy: An ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus, generally in the fallopian tube. This condition has the capacity to be lethal. As a result, urgent medical attention is required.
- Preterm Labor: It refers to labor that starts earlier than 37 weeks of pregnancy and puts the unborn child at risk for major health issues. Obstetricians try to stop preterm labor before it starts and treat it when it does.
- Gestational Diabetes: This particular type of diabetes manifests during pregnancy and increases the chance of cesarean delivery, larger newborns, and birth complications. To reduce these risks, obstetricians aim to identify and treat gestational diabetes.
- Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: High blood pressure in pregnancy can harm both the mother and the baby and requires close monitoring. Preeclampsia and eclampsia are two medical conditions associated with high blood pressure levels during pregnancy. In preeclampsia, there is a sudden and severe elevation in blood pressure. In eclampsia, high blood pressure is life-threatening, and high blood pressure may accompany seizures and coma.
- Menstrual Disorders: These can include heavy or irregular periods, painful cramps, or abnormal bleeding. Gynecologists can provide diagnosis and treatment for these conditions.
- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A disorder that causes weight gain, acne, and irregular periods as a result of the ovaries producing too much androgen. Lifestyle change, including an active life and weight loss, is very important in PCOS. Hormone replacement therapies (HRT) or surgical operations may be considered in cases where lifestyle changes cannot be achieved.
- Infertility: Infertility means not being able to get pregnant despite trying for at least one year or 6 months if the woman is over 35. Recurrent miscarriages can also mean infertility. Infertility in women can be seen due to age, hormonal problems, physical or anatomical problems, lifestyle, genetic and environmental factors.Gynecologists can help women having trouble getting pregnant by identifying and treating the underlying causes of infertility.
- Ovarian Cancer: Ovarian cancer is the uncontrolled and rapid growth of cells in the ovaries. Cells can multiply rapidly, damaging and destroying healthy body tissue. In the female reproductive system, there are two ovaries, one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries are involved in the production of eggs, as well as the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
- Endometriosis: Endometriosis, which is the most common cause of secondary dysmenorrhea and chronic pelvic pain, is an estrogen-dependent pathology that is common in young women. Endometriosis can cause severe menstrual periods and infertility. Multiparity and lactation (breastfeeding) reduce the risk of endometriosis.
- Cervical Cancer: The opening between the vagina and the uterus is called the cervix. Almost all cervical cancers are caused by infections caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) strains. Regular gynecological examinations and cervical screenings increase the probability of success with early diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer. Gynecologists can help to diagnose and treat cervical cancer by performing regular Pap smears and HPV testing and by providing counseling on HPV vaccination and risk reduction.
- Vaginal and Uterine prolapse: Pelvic organ prolapse is when one or more of the organs in the pelvis slide down from their normal position and protrude into the vagina. The uterus, intestines, bladder or upper part of the vagina are among these organs. Pelvic organ prolapse can be seen due to pregnancy and especially after difficult births, large baby or multiple babies, aging, menopause, long-term constipation.This occurs due to weak pelvic muscles and can cause incontinence, bowel and bladder problems, and sexual dysfunction.
- Menopause is a natural biological process where the ovaries stop producing eggs, and levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease, leading to a variety of symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, osteoporosis and vaginal dryness.
It's important to note that this is not an exhaustive list of all the conditions and diseases that obstetricians and gynecologists can treat, but rather some of the most common. With the proper care, many of these conditions can be diagnosed and treated effectively, ensuring the ongoing health and well-being of women.
Gynecology and obstetrics has two subspecialties. Perinatalogy is concerned with pregnancy and reproductive problems. Gynecologic oncology works with cancer patients. Ovulation induction, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), ovarian tissue transplantation, and egg freezing and preservation are the most popular reproductive therapies. A test tube baby, also known as an in-vitro fertilization (IVF) baby, is a baby conceived as a result of assisted reproductive technology (ART) such as IVF.
IVF involves taking a woman's eggs out of her ovaries and fertilizing them with sperm in a lab dish. After that, the embryos are put back into the woman's uterus to have a successful pregnancy. A child conceived with the help of this method is commonly referred to as a test tube baby.
Most gynecologic cancers require surgical operations for treatment, diagnosis and staging. Surgery’s success depends on cancer’s type, stage, genetic factors and expertise of the surgeon. To reduce the risks and complications of the operation and increase the chance of cure, choosing an appropriate doctor and a suitable hospital with adequate capabilities is vital.
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It is essential for women to have access to comprehensive, compassionate and quality healthcare. Whether providing specialized care during pregnancy and childbirth or diagnosing and treating conditions that affect the female reproductive system, obstetricians and gynecologists are highly trained and compassionate healthcare professionals dedicated to helping women achieve optimal health.
USHAŞ is an affiliate of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Türkiye, promoting international health services in Türkiye, including Gynecology and Obstetrics, as part of its efforts to support medical tourism. HealthTürkiye was established to coordinate the activities of the private and public sectors for health tourism and to provide a range of services to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. HealthTürkiye aims to be the world leader in healthcare services with its expert and experienced healthcare teams and healthcare institutions equipped with advanced technology, and to provide guidance services to guests who prefer Türkiye to receive healthcare services from all over the world.
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